Tithes, Maps and Field Names
Tithes were a type of land tax originally valued at 1/10th of the value of the farm’s annual production. They were originally paid in kind i.e. 1/10th of the produce produced but later after 1836 paid by the inhabitants of a parish to the church.
Llys Nini Tithes Record 1883
Owner Jones Morgan Esq ( Morgan Jones)
Occupier William Walter;
Statute measure 104 A , 2 R, 36 P (104 acres, 2 rods and 3 perches)
Annual tithes to the Church £6 3/6
Llys-Nini Field-names from the Tithe Map and Schedules. By Deric John
Field Field name Translation / explanation
3294 Waun faur Waun Fawr (‘large meadow’)
3295 Waun dan cae garru Waun dan cae garw (cae garw – ‘rough field’)
3296 Cae Bach (‘small field’)
3300 Cae Franck/Tranch Cae Tranch ( woodland path)
3301 Waun dan ty (‘meadow below the house’)
3302 Bryn Uhon Bryn Ychen? (‘ox hill’ )
3304 Cae Uchlawr Ty Cae Uwchlaw’r Ty (field above the house)
3308 House Gardens
3305 Cae cafen Morfudd Cae cefen morfeidd ( ‘wetlands, marshes’.)
Roads and Waste
3311 Waun fach (‘small meadow’)
3313 Cae Newydd (‘new field’)
3314 Cae Errw Isha Cae Erw Isaf (‘bottom acre field’)
3316 Dan y coed (‘under the wood’)
3318 Waun Finoni Waun Ffinoni (ffinioni – ‘to abhor, to loathe’.)
3320 Cae Cabin (‘cabin field’)
3322 Waun adurwen Waun adurwen (adw’r ŵen for adwy’r ywen)
3181 Cae Main hir (‘long slender field’)
3294 Written Waun faur for Waun fawr ‘large meadow’.
3295 Written Waun dan Cae garru for Cae garw ‘rough field’.
3296 Cae Bach ‘small field’.
3300 Looks like Cae Franch but I believe the recorder has confused his F and T. Tranch/Transh is a bon fide field-name element for a path cut through the woods. Note that field 3299 is ‘Woods’ and is part of field 3300.
3301 Waun dan ty is ‘meadow below (the) house’
3303 Bryn Uhon could be a scribal error for Bryn Ychen, - ‘ox hill’.
3304 Cae Uchlawr ty is Cae Uwchlaw’r tŷ – ‘field above the house’
3305 Cae cafen Morfudd is almost certainly Cae cefn morfeidd – ‘field behind the wetlands, marshes’. It is unlikely to be the pers. name Morfudd (as written) for the meaning of ‘Morfudd’s back field’ is ungainly.
3311 Waun fach is ‘small meadow.’
3313 Cae Newydd is ‘new field’.
3314 Cae Errw Isha is Cae Erw Isaf. Isha is local dialect for Isaf. ‘bottom acre field’.
3316 Dan y coed is ‘under the wood’.
3318 Although it appears as Waun Fenoni if one compares the second letter of Fenoni with the second letter of eithin, field 3593 Coed Cae Eithin (Gelly Woren Fawr) one can observe that in both cases, the letter i has not been dotted and appears as a letter ‘e’. That shows Waun Fenoni should read Waun Finoni. The recorder often uses a single ‘f’ where he should use a double ‘f’ e.g. Forest for Fforest. The second element is local dialect ffinoni for ffinioni – ‘to abhor, to loathe’ and is descriptive of a piece of land that is very difficult to work.
3320 Cae Cabin is ‘Cabin field.’
3322 Waun adurwen is written as the recorder would have heard the sound of the field-name. Note that he sometimes uses the letter ‘u’ for a ‘w’ (e.g. garru for garw). Adur would be adwr and this corresponds to the local dialect for adwy’r ( ‘gap in the hedge of the’). That leaves wen which I believe should be written as ŵen which corresponds to the local dialect for ywen – ‘yew-tree’. Waun adurwen is almost certainly Waun adwy’r ywen – ‘yew-tree hedge gap’ i.e a gap in the hedge near the yew-tree.
Cae Main hir is ‘long slender field’ as can be verified from the Tithe Map.
with thanks to Deric John. March 2009.
Llangyfelach Tithes Collection 1801
"LLAN GEFELACH, in the Cwmwd of Derfedd, Cantref of Ffiniog (now called the Hundred of Llan Gefelach), Co. of GLAMORGAN, South Wales: a V., valued in the King's Books at £9..14..9 1/2: Patron, The Bishop of St. David's: Church ded. to St. Cyfelach. The Resident Population of this Parish, in 1801, (containing the Hamlets of Blaenegel, Cae Gerwyn, Clâs Higher, Clâs Lower, Mawr Higher, Mawr Lower, Pen Derw Higher, Pen Derw Lower, Rhwng dwy Clydach Higher, and Rhwng dwy Clydach Lower) was 4944. The Money raised by the Parish Rates, in 1803, was £982.19.0.
It is 5m. N. b. W. from Swansea. The Impropriation of this Benefice is in The Lord Bishop of St. David's, as Dean of the College of Brecknock; he is also Lord of the Manor, and holds two Courts here annually. The Vicarage is endowed with the small Tythes. This is a very extensive Parish, containing nearly 10,000 acres of Land. It is rather a singular circumstance, that the present Curate is both Curate and Clerk of the Parish. As the Salary of the Clerk amounts to about £100. per annum, and the nomination being with the Vicar, the Father of the present Curate, he nominated his Son (The Rev. William Davies), who afterwards became Curate. He appoints a person to perform the common offices of a Clerk, for which he receives the fees; but the Curate receives the bulk of the Salary, which arises from Easter Offerings." (From: A Topographical Dictionary of The Dominion of Wales by Nicholas Carlisle, London, 1811)
1884 Conveyance document between David Jones and John Glasbrook for part of Llysnini Farm and the minerals lying under the remainder of the land. This clearly shows the filed boundaries and their acerage as well as their use.