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References ad Sources 1 - 99


  1. Deric John unpublished paper 5.2.2008

  2.  Sources: Ling & Ling 1973 (AC122), 99-144; 1979 (AC128), 13-39;

3.  National Library of Wales

4.  RCAHMW 1976 (Glamorgan I.2), 86-8 (733)5,  Marvell & Owen-John 1997 'Leucarum': Britannia Monograph 12.6 J .Wiles 01.10.04

8. Dictionary of American Family Names    Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4



Einion ap Owain born about 0933 Dynevor, Llandyfeisant, Carmarthenshire, Walesdied 0984 Battle of Pen Co, Gwent, Monmouthshire, England

10. The Welsh Annals record that “the territory of Einon” was attacked by Hywel ab Idwal, in alliance with Ælfhere, ealdorman of Mercia in 983. Einon repelled the invaders, but the following year, 984, Einon was killed, "through treachery by the nobles of Gwent", says the 'Brut y Tywysogion'. 10

11.    This Index lists the full contents of each document in the second edition of Charles Cawley's Medieval Lands, the encyclopaedia of territories in the medieval western world and the royal and noble families which ruled them. The publication is hosted on the website of the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, with their kind permission.

EINION (-killed in battle Pencoed Colwynn, Gorwennydd [983/84]).

 The Gwentian Chronicle (p 31) records that "Einion son of Owain son of Hywel the Good" fought the Irish in 966.

The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales (Williams p 29)  records that "Brecheinog and all the territory of Einon, son of Owain, were devastated by the Saxons, Alvryd being their leader, and Howel son of Ieuav and Einon killed many of the host" in 982 .

The Annales Cambriæ (p 20) record that "Eynan filius Owini" was killed, undated but apparently in 984 from the context.

The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales (Williams p 29)  records that "Einon son of Owain was killed through treachery by the nobles of Gwent" in 983.

The Gwentian Chronicle (p 35) records that "Einion son of Owain was slain" in 982 in "Gorwennydd where the action of Pencoed Colwynn took place".

12.  Elizabeth Parkinson. Interpreting the Compton Census Returens 0f 1676 for the Diocese of Llandaff


13. ”  Taliesin Williams Iolo Manuscripts

Taliesin Williams. Iolo manuscripts. A selection of ancient Welsh manuscripts, in prose and verse, from the collection made by the late Edward Williams, Iolo Morganwg, for the purpose of forming a continuation of the Myfyrian archaeology; and subsequently

14.    Robert Williams.  A biographical dictionary of eminent  Welshmen.

Robert Williams.

A biographical dictionary of eminent Welshmen, from the earliest times to the present, and including every name connected with the ancient history of Wales .

15 .


17.   the Gwentian chronicle of Caradoc of Llancarvan  of Llancarvan Caradoc. Brut y tywysogion: the Gwentian chronicle of Caradoc of Llancarvan. (page 38 of 48


18. the Deanery of Groneath, or Gorwenydd. " Gronyd. Estimatio ecclesiarum decanatus de Gronyd tempore pacis facta per Thomam Vicarium ... 18

Lemuel J. (Lemuel John) Hopkin-James.  Old Cowbridge, borough, church, and school-ala.sht

19. Family History – Derwas

20. Genealogy 4 U ;


21. National Library of Wales Egerton Phillimore Papers


23. The Royal Commission on the ancient monuments in Wales.


24.Age of earliest human burial in Britain pinpointed30 October 2007

University of Oxford Website

The full research paper, ‘The ‘Red Lady’ ages gracefully: New Ultra filtration AMS determinations from Paviland,’ by Jacobi, R.M and Higham, T.F.G, will be published in the Journal of Human Evolution early in 2008.

25 . Burry Holms, Gower Early Mesolithic and later Prehistoric Site  Staff: Elizabeth Walker.    National Museum of Wales:

26 .The Ancient Monuments Index contains details of all the Ancient Monuments within the Swansea area.


27.  The Royal Commission on the ancient monuments in Wales.


28. Swansea Heritage

29.    Dictionary of Welsh Place Names Hywel Wyn Owen and Richard Morgan Gower Press 2007.

Corse Inon 1691,  Corseinon 1724, Cross Inon 1824,  Croes-Eynon 1751 and Gorse Eynon 1754  - C changing to a G in Welsh if preceded by I ( to) or O (from).


30. GenUKI

31. Derek Draisey The People of Gower, Draisey Publishing 2003


From (Draisey 2002, 54).

33.  4 Deric John

34. Gerald Cambrensis quoted from

35.   Between Loughor, Lliw and Llan – A History of Gorseinon and its environs. Gorseinon Community Council 1993   Gwyn Jones

36. Gen Uki  “  A Topographical Dictionary of Wales by Samuel Lewis 1833

37.  National Library of Wales. Welsh Biographies on line .  Professor Stephen Joseph Williams, D.Litt., (1896-1992), Swansea

38. National Library of Wales. Welsh Biographies on line .

Thomas Richards, D.Litt., (1878-1962), Bangor


39. Full text of "Archaeologia cambrensis : a record of the antiquities of Wales and its marches, and the journal of the Cambrian Archæological Association. Supplement, 1850"


40. Dictionary of American Family Names. 2003 Library Journal Best Reference Source   Edited by Patrick Hanks

41. Lewis Dwn’s Heraldic Visitations of Wales, Meyrick, 1846

42. Ancient Wales Studies, PASGEN "ap URIEN RHEGED", LORD OF GOWER

By Darrell Wolcott


43.  Triads of Britain by Iolo Morganwg. third series" of Welsh Triads was compiled by Iolo Morganwg (Edward Williams) and published in Y Myvyrian Archaiology in 1807


44.  National Library of Wales online Biographies St Cadog. Professor Emrys George Bowen, M.A., F.S.A., (1900-83), Aberystwyth.


45.    National Library of Wales online Biographies. Mrs. Mary Gwendoline Ellis, M.A., Aberystwyth.


46. Prescedwin Deric John Some place-names in south Wales


47. Coal Mining

Source - in the main from ‘The Coal Mining Industry in West Glamorgan’ by W. Gerwyn Thomas B.Sc, Ph.d etc in The Glamorgan Historian Vol 6 ed. Steven Williams (pub’d. 1969)



48.  West Glamorgan Archives:


(NAS BG/P 1/1-143) Deeds of properties in the parishes of Llangyfelach and Llandeilo Talybont 1478-1748

(NAS BG/P 1/1, 2) Gift dated 12 July 1478; (i) William earl of Pembroke, Lord Herbert of Raglan, Dunster, Chepstow and Gower, to (ii) John ap Llewelyn ap Gruffuth ap Howell; 6 Welsh acres of land at Bagh Gwreythyn [Bach-y-gwreiddyn] between the rivers Gwonoc and Llyw [Lliw] in the parish of Llangyfelach and manor of Gower Supraboscus, and 8 Welsh acres at a place called Presgedwyn [Pryscedwyn] and Gweyn [...] in Gower Supraboscus, to be held in the same manner as the freeholders of the manor of Pennard; Includes translation and transcription [1 parchment, Latin, damaged by damp, part missing, original number 14; also 4 papers]

49.  Deric John Notes on some Place-names in and around the Bont  1999



50.   "The Story of Sker House" by A. Leslie Evans. Confirms the Abbey’s ownership of the Grange and that sometime before 1467 From page 9, I quote the following passage: -"Thus we find that Sker was leased to Richard LOUGHER at some time in the15th century. He was living at Sker in 1467, according to a deed of thatdate, and it is clear from Peniarth MS 120, f.494, that he had previouslyleased the grange called Cwrt-y-Carnau on the River Lougher from the Abbotof Neath. This record, written about 1580, states: "Court Carney, sometimeRichard LOUGHER dwelt there, but after ye slaughter of .....parson of CastleLougher.... he came to Sker." It is a pity that the reference is brief andincomplete, but we wonder whether the victim was Richard LOUGHER's father,Gronow, reputed to be Rector of Lougher. He hailed from Baglan originally,being a descendant of the Lords of Avan and Baglan.




51.  A Romantic Valley in Wales ... THE HISTORY OF THE VALE OF NEATH by D. RHYS PHILLIPS West Glamorgan County Archive Service and Neath Borough Council 1994


286                         HISTORY OF THE VALE OF NEATH


Leake, Thomas Neale and Benjamin Gyles "a parcel of land whereon an ironmelting furnace stood. "1 It is clear from the delimitation made on the lease that the Old Furnace stood not far from the site occupied by Foxes & Co.'s late 18th cent. ironworks at Cwm Felin, Neath Abbey.


Circa 1715.—There is some reason for concluding that Thomas Popkin of the Forest, Swansea Valley (High Sheriff of Glamorgan, 1718) was associated with the ironworks at Neath Abbey, and this may account for thc introduction of two of his Relatives as local ironfounders. Under ".Melin-y-Cwrt" we produce a document showing that castings from Neath Abbey were brought to that furnace and forge in 1718, while another MS. proves a Lease of the Melin-y­Cwrt Furnace by Thomas Popkin2 in 1736. Carw Coch (Essay, pp. (33-4) stated in 1856 on the authority of James Prosser, aged 94, of Neath Abbey— whose mother had been in service with the partners (called by him Pitt, Collins, and Lewis, but known to the documents as Coles, Lewis & Co.)—that the originators of the Neath Abbey iron-works were the gentlemen here named. The only value of this testimony is its confirmation of our surmise that Pytt and his conferees succeeded Popkin not at Melin-y-Cwrt only, but also at Neath Abbey. There is some ground for assuming, as we show further on, that Popkin's nephew, Thos. Pryce, succeeded Coles, Lewis & Co. at the abbey works and the furnace of Bryncoch. Unfortunately the documents do not bridge these gaps in local metallurgical history. Thomas Lewis of Newhouse, Llanishen, was a half-brother of Gabriel Lewis who married Thos. Popkin's daughter Jane, and thus Thos. Lewis became a member3 of the firm of Coles, Lewis & Co. of the Melin-y-cwrt and Ynys-y-gerwn works. Thos. Popkin's daughter Mary, married Matthew Pryce of Cwrt-y-Carnau (the grange of Neath Abbey) a cadet of the Prices of Briton Ferry, whose 2nd son Thomas Pryce4 lived at Cwrtrhydhir, Neath Abbey, and supplied the British Government with munitions of war. According to ID W. Jones,5 Thomas Popkin's second son, John who lived on the old Abbey land of Drymma, "owned extensive ironworks and his father before him, and his forge was so perfect that one of its chief operations was the. manufacture of muskets" (Transl.). Another connection is found in the marriage of Thomas, natural son of the above Thos. Popkin, with Elizabeth, daughter of Llewelyn Williams of Duffryn (who succeeded his father Philip Williams as Steward of the Manor of Cadoxton). Thos. Popkin, Jun., settled at Brycoch farm (which at a later period was let "at will" to the Miers' firm by his wife's 2nd husband, Dr. William Jones of Neath), and here we have a clue to the site of one of the Popkin iron-furnaces which devolved in time to his relative, Thomas Pryce.



52.    West Glamorgan Archives Service: <NAS BF 1/7/1> Family settlement to the uses of Mathew Pryce for his lifetime, then to heirs of Katherin Pryce dated 4 Jun 1623, between i) Mathew Pryce of Cwrt-y-carnau, Llandeilo Talybont, esq; ii) William Pryce of Briton Ferry and David Evans of Neath, esqs.; All lands, tenements, hereditaments and tithes in the parish of Llandilo Talybont [Llandeilo Talybont], Glamorgan; Recites articles of agreement between i) John Pryce of Courtcarney, gent. (father of (i)) and Leison Evans of Neath, esq. dated 19 Dec 1602 concerning the marriage of (i) and Katherin Evans (daughter of Leison Evans)[1 parchment; seal missing]

53.   <D/D Xge 32/39> Deed to lead the uses of a fine dated 17 Jan. 1732; (i) William Seys of Killan, gent., and Catherine his wife; (ii) Thomas Price of Penlloyngare [Penlle'rgaer], esq., and Elizabeth Watkins of Murton in the parish of Bishopston, spinster, executors of the will of John Price, deceased, ; (iii) William Owen of Oystermouth, mariner, ; (iv) Matthew Price of Court Carney [Cwrt-y-Carne], esq., and Thomas Griffiths of Newton, gent.: Farm house and lands called Killan, in the parishes of Llanrhidian and Loughor, and a farm and lands called the Wimmell [Windmill Farm], in the parishes of Llanrhidian and Cheriton[1 parchment]


54.  <RISW JC 83> Bond in £400, Morgan Morgan of Courtcarney [Cwrt-y-carnau] and William Morgan of Castle Dee [Castell-du] both in the parish of Llandeilo Talybont to Mary Thomas of Lougher to secure the payment of £200. 22 Apr. 1805[1 paper, originally James and Collins F3]



55.    <RISW JC 81> Copy draft Conveyance by Lease and Release for 5s dated -1835; i) David Morgan of Glyn-hîr in the parish of Llandeilo Talybont, surgeon with; ii) Morgan Jones of Courtcarne [Cwrt-y-carnau] in the parish of Llandeilo Talybont, gent. to; iii) Edward Hamlin Adams of Middleton Hall, Carmarthen, esq. with; iv) Michael Clayton of Lincoln's Inn, Middlesex, gent.; Land called Castell-du, Maes-dy-nant and Llwyn y dommon with the lime kilns in the parish of Llandeilo Talybont.[7 papers, originally James and Collins F2]



56. MacNeill, Eoin (1926), "The Native Place of St. Patrick", Papers read for the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin: Hodges, Figgis, pp. 118 – 140, – MacNeill argues for an origin in South Wales, noting that the western coasts of southern Scotland and northern England held little to interest a raider seeking quick access to booty and numerous slaves, while the southern coast of Wales offered both. In addition, the region was home to Uí Liatháin and possibly also Déisi settlers during this time, so Irish raiders would have had the contacts to tell them precisely where to go in order to quickly obtain booty and capture slaves. MacNeill also suggests a possible home town based on naming similarities, but allows that the transcription errors in manuscripts make this little more than an educated guess.


57. List of references relating to the Enniaun Stone at Margam. MARG 2/1 UCL


58. Nash-Williams/1950

Nash-Williams, V. E. (1950) The Early Christian Monuments of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.   NMRS/HY62NE14


59.  RCAHMW/1976

Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments in Wales (1976) An Inventory of the Ancient Monuments in Glamorgan Volume 1: Pre-Norman. Part II: The Early Christian Period. Cardiff: HMSO.



  British Archaeological Association.

Journal of the British Archaeological Association (Volume 49)

. (page 4 of 34)



61. A Dictionary of Welsh Language, William Owen Pugh 1832


Neath Antiquarian Society's archive collections


(NAS BG/P 1/1-143) Deeds of properties in the parishes of Llangyfelach and Llandeilo Talybont 1478-1748

(NAS BG/P 1/1, 2) Gift dated 12 July 1478; (i) William earl of Pembroke, Lord Herbert of Raglan, Dunster, Chepstow and Gower, to (ii) John ap Llewelyn ap Gruffuth ap Howell; 6 Welsh acres of land at Bagh Gwreythyn [Bach-y-gwreiddyn] between the rivers Gwonoc and Llyw [Lliw] in the parish of Llangyfelach and manor of Gower Supraboscus, and 8 Welsh acres at a place called Presgedwyn [Pryscedwyn] and Gweyn [...] in Gower Supraboscus, to be held in the same manner as the freeholders of the manor of Pennard; Includes translation and transcription [1 parchment, Latin, damaged by damp, part missing, original number 14; also 4 papers]

63 .  <NAS BG/P 1/9> Quitclaim dated 11 Aug. 1530; (i) William ap Jeuan ap William Thuy to (ii) Thomas ap Jeuan ap William Thuy; Farm called Biettinge alias Llesneny [Llys-nini] in the parish of Llangyfelach[1 parchment, Latin, 1 pendant seal, original number 1]

64.   Reference code: NAS BGHeld at: Neath Mechanics' InstituteTitle: Bach-y-gwreiddyn EstateCreation date(s): 1417-1791Level of description: Fonds

 Mathew estate of Little Hill, Bishopston:This estate consisted of properties in the parishes of Bishopston, Llangennith, Llanrhidian, Loughor and Swansea which belonged to the Mathew family of Little Hill, Bishopston. In the 16th century the family were farmers, the head describing himself as 'yeoman', but by the 17th century, after a number of purchases of farms and scattered pieces of land, the Mathew family were able to describe themselves as gentlemen. The estate was inherited by Margaret Mathew, as the granddaughter and heiress of Owen Mathew senior. In 1699 she married Richard Prichard of Bach-y-gwreiddyn, and the estate became part of the Prichard family holdings.

65  Morgannwg transactions of the Glamorgan Local  History Society Vol 22.

Prys Morgan.  1978

66  NLW, Penllergaer MSS B 19:21; B 19:23. GRO, D/D CL 1/184. D. R. L. Jones,

'Coytrahen: The Families, Estate and Houses', Morgannwg, XXXIV (1990), 54-55.


85.  NLW, Penllergaer MSS B 19:21; B 19:23. GRO, D/D CL 1/184. D. R. L. Jones,

'Coytrahen: The Families, Estate and Houses', Morgannwg, XXXIV (1990), 54-55.

86 Judging from land tax assessment evidence, the 'reversion' seems to have occurred

c. 1804/5, though the reasons are obscure and difficult to comprehend in view of the

complex legal proceedings which ensued. By the entail in Griffith Price's will, the

former Penllergaer estate lands bequeathed to John Popkin came, after Popkin's

death, in trust to JP's sister, Frances Traheme (d.1807) of Castellau. Indeed, the

income derived from them seems to have been her chief means of support, though

her financial position at the time of the 'reversion' was nonetheless precarious. It

seems likely that the entail was broken to raise a trust fund for Frances Traheme and

her eleven children, and that John Llewelyn, as trustee, bought the properties. It was

therefore not a 'built-in' reversion. See D. R. L. Jones, op.cit., 55.


87.  NLW, Penllergaer, MS A 1008. This is a draft agreement dated 19 October 1821

between Morgan Popkin Traheme (1782-1859) of Coytrahen (the son of Frances

Traheme) and Lewis Weston Dillwyn, by which Traheme agreed to sell to Dillwyn

for £ 8,000 'All his reversions and Inheritance in fee simple expectant on the death of

Molly Graves Wall. in the parishes of Llanelly and Llangyfelach. The

Llangyfelach properties included Gerdinen Isaf (Parcel Mawr Higher) and

Brynrhos, Penquar and Llysniny, all in Penderry Higher. John Wall Esq, was a

lieutenant colonel in the South Gloucestershire Militia and in the commission of the

peace for the counties of Gloucester and Worcester. He was of The Lodge,

sometimes called Tewkesbury Lodge or Tewkesbury Park. He married Molly Price

(nee Graves Taylor) on 8 July 1789. Before marrying Griffith Price, her first

husband, Molly Graves Taylor was cited in Price's will of 1783 as 'the respected

Friend' of his ever dear but departed eldest daughter (Mary). Molly, in fact, died on

6  March 1837 at the house of her son, Revd F. S. Wall, at East Acton, Middlesex.

The Tewkesbury Register recorded that 'this amiable lady survived her much

respected husband (John Wall) nearly thirty years; the greater part of this period she

lived at The Pheasantry, a beautiful residence in Bushey Park, which his late

Majesty George the Fourth was graciously pleased to bestow upon her, as a mark of

high respect he entertained for Colonel Wall'.



67.  <NAS C 10/9> Agreement to sell for £900, dated 23 May 1807; (i) William Vaughan of Swansea, esq., Richard Hoare Jenkins of Llanharan House, esq., trustees for the sale, and Morgan Popkin Traherne of Castellau, esq., brother and heir of Edmund Traherne of Castellau, esq., deceased, to (ii) David Jones of Ystradfellte, farmer; Farm and lands called Llysneeny [Llys-nini] in the parish of Llangyfelach, formerly in the tenure of Jane Davies, widow 

68.  We should have no objection to your using the photograph from Acton St Mary on your website. An acknowledgement of the source and a link back to the Middlesex Heraldry Society site would be kind.  I am pleased to have been of service.  Yours sincerely,Andrew Gray  (Dr A.C.G. Gray)    Webmaster, Middlesex Heraldry Society   63,  New Road   London E1 1HH


69. Morgannwg : transactions of the Glamorgan Local History Society

- Vol. 22 - 1978   Glamorgan and the Red Book


By the middle years of the fifteenth century, during the

Wars of the Roses, Hopkyn ap Rhys ap Hopkyn was a client or ally

of Philip Mansel of Oxwich and Penrice, and both were clients of

the Lancastrian side which was led by Jasper Tudor. Both Mansel

and Hopkyn ap Rhys ap Hopkyn fought at the Battle of

Mortimer's Cross in 1461 on the side of King Henry VI, and were

said, wrongly, by William of Worcester to have been captured and

decapitated there[25]. They escaped and lived to fight another day,

but in the meantime the Lancastrian side had lost in Gower, and

this led to a Yorkist take-over of the lordship. In 1462 the Herberts

of Raglan obtained the lordship from the new king Edward IV, and

they and their kinsmen rose to power all over the place, and their

kinsmen included the Vaughans of Breconshire. In 1464 there was

further trouble in Wales against Edward IV, and Jasper Tudor

hoped for a widespread rebellion, and he relied for support in

Gower on Philip Mansel and Hopkyn ap Rhys ap Hopkyn, among

others. This counter-coup against Edward IV was a failure, and the

rebels were attainted, their lands and possessions all forfeited [26].

King Edward IV granted the forfeited possessions of Mansel

and Hopkyn ap Rhys ap Hopkyn to Sir Roger Vaughan of Tre-

tower, that is, the manors of Philip Mansel in Gower such as

Oxwich, and the possessions of Hopkyn which comprised forty

messuages, two hundred acres of land, two hundred acres of

pastures, and two hundred acres of heath, which lay in the parish

of Llangyfelach and the lordship of Gower, Kilvey and Swansea.

The triumph of the Vaughans in Gower was confirmed by an act of

Parliament in 1467-68 [27]. The Vaughans and their clients and

allies took over the administration of the area. In a Neath Abbey

charter of 1468, for example, the witnesses include Sir Roger

Vaughan while the coroner is Thomas ap Roger Vaughan. This Sir

Roger was killed in 1471 by Jasper Tudor during a short-lived

political reversal of fortunes for the Yorkists, but the Yorkist hold

was fundamentally unbroken until 1485. On June 5th 1483, Jenkyn

Bourage was admitted as tenant of Scurlage Castle (before 1465 a

Mansel manor) at a court held at Oxwich in the name of Thomas ap

Roger Vaughan, and held before Morgan Mauncell and Thomas

Thomkyn, the deputies of the seneschal of the lordship, Richard

Logher[28]. This Richard Logher was Richard ap Grono, of Cwrt y

Carnau grange near Loughor, and he married Margaret Vaughan

one of the many children of Watkyn (or Walter) Vaughan of Bred-

wardine, Sir Roger Vaughan's brother. Richard Logher is regarded

as the founder of the Lougher families in Glamorgan [29]. A

number of other Glamorgan men married into the Vaughan clan in

this period, and Logher or Lougher was clearly a client or ally, who

is found after 1485 at another grange, that of Sker near modern


Like the Herberts, the Vaughans were clever opportunists.

Although they were allies of the Duke of Buckingham in the early

1480s, Buckingham's tremendous rise to power came to threaten

their own power in Brecon and Gower, and the Vaughans turned

against him in 1483, and then, when Henry Tudor defeated Richard

III in 1485, they did nothing to resist the new régime[30], and did

nothing to resist the return of Lancastrians to power and influence.

Nothing seems to be recorded of the return to the heirs of Hopkyn

ap Rhys of his forfeited possessions, though, from what we have

said of the devolution of the properties above, most of them must

have returned fairly soon to them. Jenkyn Mansel, Philip's heir,

returned to the forfeited lands in Oxwich by 1486, for his heir, later

Sir Rice Mansel, was born at Oxwich in the second year of Henry

VII's reign[31]. Sir Mathew Cradock, who had married Edith,

Jenkyn Mansel's sister, paid one hundred marks to Watkyn

Vaughan of Tretower as a result of which Vaughan released any

right he had to certain manors in Gower. This is known from a

much later deed (of 1520) in which Sir Rice Mansel thanks Cradock

for his help in this matter[32]. By quiet and careful "back-

pedalling" of this kind, the Vaughans, like their Herbert cousins,

retained much of their power in the Tudor period.

It was the Vaughans then who controlled the possessions of the

Mansels and Hopkyn ap Rhys from 1465 to 1485. Sir Roger

Vaughan of Tretower was the head of the elder branch of the

family, while Thomas Vaughan headed the younger branch at

Hergest. Sir Roger of Tretower's son, Sir Thomas, had three sons

(to whom Lewis Glyn Cothi wrote the awdl inserted in the Red

Book of Hergest), Roger, Watkyn and Harry. Besides this Sir

Thomas, Sir Roger had another son, yet another Roger, who

founded a distinguished line at Porthaml near Talgarth, to which

we shall again return in our argument. The Vaughans of Hergest,

although a younger line, made Hergest into a considerable centre of

bardic patronage up to the middle decades of the sixteenth century.

All the Vaughan branches were closely allied and they all

patronised poets such as Lewis Glyn Cothi[33]. As a point of

interest one should add that although the Vaughans had gracefully

retired from Gower in 1485, they still maintained some connexions.

The Harry Vaughan of Tretower we have mentioned above had a

daughter Wenllian who married George ap Richard of Ynysmudw

(near Pontardawe) a family of Tawe gentry closely allied to the

Herberts. A little later, in the middle of the sixteenth century,

Margaret daughter of Thomas Vaughan of Tretower married John

ap David ap Hopkyn of Ynysdawy [34].


70.   Morgan David, Yeoman SD/1767/144 1767Contents: Will. Inventory. Diocese: St David's Parish: Llangyfelach. Llandeilo Tal-y-bont Township: Llysnini County: Glamorgan

71 Maes-Y-Gelynen Estate papers.


73. The Rebecca Riots within 10 mies of Swansea Derek Draisey 2010.

74.Pontardulais Town Council

75. the New Poor Laws of 1834.

76. Chartism in Wales Neil Evans, Honorary Research Fellow, School of History and Archaeology, Cardiff University.

77. GENEALOGY OF THE LEIGHS OF WALES 1550 – 1850 by Derek Williams

78. 'Nassau Senior in Wales', by E Evans in NLW Journal 1951

79. Iolo Morganwg developed his own runic system, in Welsh Coelbren y Beirdd ("the Bardic Alphabet"). It was said to be the alphabetic system of the ancient druids. It consisted of 20 main letters, and 20 others "to represent elongated vowels and mutations."[5] These symbols were to be represented in a wooden frame, known as peithynen.


80.   Davies, W 1979 The Llandaff charters


81.  Early Medieval ecclesiastical sites in southeast Wales: Desk-based assessment  A Report for Cadw April 2003. GGAT Edith Evans BA PhD MIFA   Report GGAT 2003/030


82. Rev John Walters interview 2011.



84.  Reconstructing St. Teilo's Church  15 March 2007 Elen Phillips


85.   In 1870-72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales


86  Saints, Seaways and Settlements in the Celtic Lands. Prof Emrys George Bowen Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1969. [No ISBN

87  [Extracted from The Old Parish Churches of Gwent, Glamorgan & Gower, by Mike Salter, Folly Publications, Malvern, 1991, ISBN 1-871731-08-9].

88.  A Topographical Dictionary of The Dominion of Wales by Nicholas Carlisle, London, 1811)


89.  Interview Derek Williams August 2011 – author of the Welsh Leigh Family Web site.


90. Newspaper Article, 2nd April 1858, Cambrian Newspaper held at Swansea Archives.


91. Article Research by Sara GoodwinAvailable from: Cambrian Newspaper/Newspaper Article, 26th March 1858 - Swansea Archives 

92  Article Research by Sara GoodwinAvailable from: Cambrian Newspaper/Newspaper Article, 23rd March 1866 - Swansea Archives



 94. 1841 census (RG Number HO107 piece 1424 Book/folio 8/4 page 1). The census records his occupation as “l ind” and that he was born in the county.

95. Interview with the Rev Vincent Watkin Minister of Carmel Chapel 2011.

96.  Communication from Gareth Jones about his research into his family tree.  Communication from Gareth Jones about his family tree.


97  BBC


98.  Bergen-Belsen, A History From 1935


99. Cambrian Friday Jan 2nd 1846  transcribed by Deric John

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